The cry of "Long live the Republic!" is also a reminder that it can die. But reducing it to a slogan means losing sight of the guiding idea that is central to the Republic: the search for the common good. Embedded in a long European history, this modern form of this idea developed well before the French Revolution, in the United Provinces of the 16th century. Well before 1789, it was the American and English revolutions that gave rise to the grand principles of collective life. In France, the Republic - proclaimed three times - has often wavered, and it was not until its third incarnation that the great public freedoms were established. It is important to keep this tumultuous history in mind if we want to protect republican heritage. The Republic is fragile and must constantly adapt - put its future in Europe's hands, re-balance its institutions, invent new forms of decision-making close to its citizens, restore the schools' power as a tool for integration, breathe life into secularism, and address the challenge of the environmental crisis. These are all political challenges it will face in the future.