Loin d'un schéma théorique et clos, les articles de ce numéro réaffirment la diversité, dans le temps comme dans l'espace, des modalités et des conséquences du passage au(x) politique(s) et nous aident à reformuler la notion de « politisation ». Read More
FROM BULLETS TO BALLOTS. ABOUT ELECTORAL VIOLENCE ON APRIL 23,1848
Analyzing electoral violence involves refuting a tenacious form of idealism. This large-scale study seeks to show that the conventions of voting were not formed against or outside of violence, but within it, using material elements thereof for their construction and justification. The episodic violence that occurred on the very first day of French electoral democracy, April 23,1848, sheds some light on the history of political violence. Henceforth, electoral politics was no longer to be a struggle, but a competition. Understanding how the rules of the electoral game wrought that transition reveals the human dimension of this history -a history that cannot be considered separately from the nature of the State and the social interrelations between these competitors.
Magali Delia Sudda
POLITICS BEFORE SUFFRAGE: POLITICIZATION, GENDER AND CATHOLICISM IN FRENCH AND ITALIAN CATHOLIC WOMEN'S MOVEMENTS (1900-1914)
Through a comparative study of two Catholic associations, the Ligue patriotigue des Françaises (French Women's Patriotic League, LPDF) and the Unione fra le donne cattoliche d'Italia (Union of Catholic Women of Italy, UDCI), this article sheds some light on the role of gender and the Church in the politicization process. Working alongside Roman Catholic politicians, the women in the LPDF established a conservative feminine repertoire of collective action and participated, albeit indirectly, in electoral politics. The Italian political and religious context, in contrast, did not allow any such scope for Catholic women to get involved in politics. This article aims to gain some new insight into the various ways conservative women did politics before their eventual enfranchisement.
THE POLITICIZATION OF RELIGIOUS COMMITMENT: REVISITING A MATRIX OF POLITICAL INVOLVEMENT IN MAY '68
Based on a survey of former May-68 activists who placed their children In two experimental schools, this article re-assays the determinants of involvement in the events of May 1968. Our analysis makes out four principal matrices of involvement: family transmission of a disposition towards involvement, the politicization of religious commitments, the social mobility of first-generation intellectuals, and status-related incoherences. The politicization of religious commitments is then explored in depth. A contextuallzed comparative analysis of six life trajectories points up the processes involved in the genesis of the disposition toward involvement and then in their reorientation, as well as the conjunction of micro-, meso-and macro-sociological factors that shifted the quest for salvation from the religious to the political sphere.
CAN CITIZENS SPEAK UP? NOTES FOR A PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO CIVIC COMPETENCE
In the light of recent developments in democracies, particularly voter abstentionism, the concept of political competence needs to be broadened to allow for the diversity of skills and knowledge agents may possess or acquire to express their preferences in the public sphere. This article presents a pragmatic synthesis of some recent studies based on an expanded praxiological and processual analysis of the acquisition of civic competence. This epistemological and theoretical approach is then illustrated by an ethnographic study of access to civic competence in a participatory budgeting organization, which underscores the malleability of the competence of agents placed in a favourable institutional setting. It therefore offers a model of politicization in interaction; iterated participation results in the bifurcation of agents' trajectories - either towards more institutionalized civic engagement or increased cynicism about politics.
HOW MUCH DO FRENCH ACADEMICS GET PUBLISHED PER YEAR?
Not enough, some French politicians recently deplored. This article seeks for the first time to gauge the overall productivity of French social scientists based on reliable guantitative figures, namely the number of published papers by political scientists working at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS). The results indicate a high level of annual productivity, predomi¬nantly in edited books, and significant interna¬tional exposure. Based on an exhaustive list of journals in which these political scientists have been published, we go on to discuss the validity of journal impact rankings and international citation Indexes, as well as the over-gendered profile of political science at the CNRS, specifically amongst high-ranking political scientists.