Vingtième Siècle 122, avril-juin 2014

Le génocide des Tutsi rwandais, vingt ans après
First Edition

La revue Vingtième Siècle s'associe au Mémorial de la Shoah (17, rue Geoffroy l’Asnier, 75004, Paris) à l’occasion de l’exposition « Rwanda 1994 : le génocide des Tutsi » (10 avril-5 octobre 2014).

On 7 April 1994, the genocide of Rwandan Tutsis began. Three months later: eight hundred thousand to one million victims. Vingtième Siècle analyses this major event of our contemporary history by giving voice to French and Rwandan researchers, young historians and anthropologists. Read More

The Rwandan Tutsi Genocide, Twenty Years Later: Introductory Remarks
Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau et Hélène Dumas
After 1994, the social sciences quickly incorporated Rwanda's Tutsi genocide into their programme of study. This article questions whether the urge to compare the Rwandan genocide with other mass killings was entirely justified. Certain elements of the Rwandan genocide do not fit neatly into the framework provided by these kinds of studies. This article highlights three characteristics that resist easy classification in a social science analysis: the role of middlemen played by neighbours and families in the massacre; the specifically religious dimension of its extreme violence; and the phenomenon of "traumatic crises" during memorial ceremonies.

A Historian Reads the Tutsi Genocide: An Interview with Jean-Pierre Chrétien
Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau et Hélène Dumas
In this interview, the historian Jean-Pierre Chretien recalls his experience in Burundi in 1964, when he instructed student teachers from Bujumbura. He recounts his discovery of the rift between the Hutu and the Tutsi, the shock produced by the 1972 massacres and Rwanda's influence on Burundi. He revisits the roots of "Hamitic ideology" a racial mythology that surfaced in the social sciences during the 19th century and which was subsequently spread by colonialism. At the beginning of the 1990s, Jean-Pierre Chretien became aware of the increasing radicalization of racial thinking in Rwanda. In early 1993, he tried to warn the French public of the risk of genocide. Today, he calls for serious public debate regarding this historic event.

Local Approach of the Genocide: The Nyarubuye Region
Paul Rutayisire
This article offers a summarized version of one of the rare monographs devoted to the history of the Tutsi genocide in the Eastern region of the country. The Nyarubuye sector provides here the context for an analysis of the massacres’ organisation as supervised by the local authorities, whose role was essential. Between the 14th and the 17th of April 1994, in the centre of Nyarutunga and in the Parish of Nyarubuye, about twenty-seven thousand people were murdered. At first, the inhabitants worked together to resist their attackers, arriving from neighbouring sectors, until some of them were ordered to kill the Tutsi. The Parish had attracted many Tutsi from neighbouring parishes where the violence had already spread, and its occupants were exterminated in a matter of days.

The Jean-Paul Akayesu Trial: Local Authorities on the Stand
Ornella Rovetta
From January 1997 until September 1998, the first trial of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) was held in Arusha, Tanzania. This historical trial culminated in a crucial judicial precedent. Working from the judicial archives, this article seeks to examine how the trial unfolded, as well as the uniqueness of the judicial narrative derived from the witnesses’ statements. More broadly, this case study of a former mayor’s trial also investigates the local dynamics of violence and genocide on the county level.

Killers at the Heart of the Family: Women as Intermediaries
Violaine Baraduc
While women represent approximately 6% of those incarcerated for their participation in the genocide committed against the Rwandan Tutsi, their involvement should be seen as one of the massacre’s decisive elements. Female participation took many guises (from looting and denunciation to brutal murder) and undoubtedly contributed to the intensity and efficiency of the genocide. An analysis of the biography of two women incarcerated at the Central Prison in Kigali sheds light on some of the mechanisms that allowed genocidal violence to permeate the basic building block of society that is the family, attesting to the radical nature of the massacres that occurred in 1994.

Child Victims, Child Killers: Childhood Experiences from Rwanda, 1994
Hélène Dumas
Little attention has been devoted to the question of how children experienced 1994 within the world of social science. Yet children constituted important actors at the time, both as victims and as perpetrators. They accounted for a majority of the victims, as well as a substantial portion of the surviving population. This unique circumstance gave rise to a new family model, where a group of orphans was led by an older child. The participation of children in the massacres also proved to be one of the defining transgressions of the genocide. Examining these experiences ultimately allows us to investigate the ways in which the massacres redefined the social boundaries of childhood in Rwanda.

Remembering the Rwandan Genocide: The State Commemorates Among the Ruins (1994-1996)
Rémi Korman
Based on an analysis of the archives of the National Commission for the Fight against Genocide (CNLG) – the organisation tasked with the remembrance of the Rwandan genocide – this article seeks to explain under which material conditions and with which memorial imagery the Rwandan State has officially commemorated the Tutsi massacre that occurred between 1994 et 1996. An analysis of the first dignified State burials of the genocide victims and of the radical changes which subsequently took place between the first and second national commemoration ceremonies provides several clues. Finally, the author analyses the diverse foreign influences which helped to establish a Rwandan commemorative model.

Paperback - In French 23.00 €


Presses de Sciences Po
20 & 21. Revue d'histoire
, History, Rwanda
Publisher Category
> History
Publisher Category
> History field
BISAC Subject Heading
Onix Audience Codes
01 General / trade
Presses de Sciences Po
Title First Published
01 April 2014
Subject Scheme Identifier Code
Thema subject category: Politics and government
Type of Work
Journal Issue
Index, Bibliography


Publication Date
01 April 2014
Product Content
Text (eye-readable)
Main content page count : 232
17 x 24 x 0.8 cm
392 grams
List Price
23.00 €
Version 2.1, Version 3

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Le génocide des Tutsi : objet d'histoire

Le génocide des Tutsi rwandais vingt ans après : réflexions introductives
Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau et Hélène Dumas 


Un historien face au génocide des Tutsi : entretien avec Jean-Pierre Chrétien
Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau et Hélène Dumas 

Temps et lieux du génocide
Approche locale du génocide : la région de Nyarubuye
Paul Rutayisire

Le procès de Jean-Paul Akayesu : les autorités communales en jugement
Ornella Rovetta 

Tuer au coeur de la famille : les femmes en relais
Violaine Baraduc 

Enfants victimes, enfants tueurs : expériences enfantines (Rwanda, 1994)
Hélène Dumas


L’État rwandais et la mémoire du génocide : commémorer sur les ruines (1994-1996)
Rémi Korman 

La communauté juive face à la culture mémorielle en Allemagne
Dorothea Bohnekamp 

Naissance et institutionnalisation de la soirée annuelle du Conseil représentatif des institutions juives de France
Samuel Ghiles-Meilhac 

Anastasie, fille aînée de l’Église et de l’État ? Censure étatique et cotation catholique des films en France (1945-1966)
Frédéric Hervé 

Les vies successives de La Société du spectacle de Guy Debord
Anna Trespeuch-Berthelot 


Déménagement des archives de la préfecture de Police de Paris
Gilles Morin 

Social History Portal
Françoise Blum

Les Archives nationales et le Pajep
Catherine Mérot 

L’institut Tribune socialiste
Gilles Morin 

Avis de recherches

La vivacité de l’histoire de la mort
Jonathan Barbier 

La Grande Guerre comme moment interculturel ?
Nicolas Patin 

Images, lettres et sons
Une Aïda de tous les siècles
Hélène Bourguignon

L’Exposition internationale urbaine de 1914
Hélène Bourguignon

« Cracovie sous l’occupation nazie »
Cécile Vaissié

L’Unité populaire et le coup d’État de 1973
Eugénia Palieraki et Christiane Ratiney

Rithy Panh et l’image manquante
Sophie Louey

Vingtième Siècle signale

En guerre – Totalitarismes – Italie – Chili – Proche et Moyen-Orients – Guerre d’Algérie – Droites et gauches françaises – État et politiques publiques – Justice, travail et société – Politiques culturelles – Christianisme – Humanisme