For four years, between 2015 and 2019, Frédéric Mérand went behind the wings at Berlaymont, the seat of the European Commission in Brussels, in order to observe and understand how Europe is really "made".
The referendum is a political tool that provokes deep distrust among elites. Yet if it is well designed, a referendum can accompany certain major political decisions, help to create a relationship of trust between citizens and institutions, and may also play a central role in the experimental forms of particularity at the local levels.
New constraints have been added to the funding and management of political organizations. Actors involved in electoral campaigns have learned the rules that they have to abide by when they descend into the arena. But these rules were made for and by politicians. Their repressive and dissuasive power has shown itself to be limited.
Under pressure from Europe, MPs' relationships with voters, laws, ministers, and even themselves, have been altered. In analysing the impact of European integration on the French national assembly, Olivier Rozenberg has interviewed 60 MPs on their understanding of parliamentary activity.
Tristes hémicycles ?
This book analyses the results of a panel of 236 towns with more than 30,000 inhabitants, over a 30-year period (1983-2014). It investigates the local and national criteria liable to explain the success and defeat of candidates, whilst also demonstrating why certain incumbent municipal teams are systematically re-elected.
Trajectoires politiques des municipalités françaises de 1983 à 2014
Richard Nadeau, Martial Foucault