De l'égalité dans la différence. Le socialisme de Pierre Leroux
Although the inventor of the word « socialism » was considered in his own tinte the Rousseau of the 19th century, he caused as much admiration as irritation. He deranged the Right by his criticism of conservative individualism, which exalted the individual and liberty to the détriment of equality. He deranged the Left by his warnings against a leveling communism which, in the name of equality, would crush liberty. Starting from a trinitary anthropology, solidly based on psychology, the philosophy of history and metaphysics, Leroux established that equality could exist only if there was respect for individuality and différences, and denounced, under the expression « régime of castes », économie and political inequalities, but also, and in very modem terms, the social inequalities arising from racism and sexism. He suggested an association of a différent type in which, after a réévaluation of the concept of sovereignty, the press, art, and religion would be called upon to form a vast public space next to the State. The question raised by the global project of the « Doctrine of Humanity » - that of instituting an authentic democracy which would never sink into authoritarianism - can no longer be evaded after the récent totalitarian expériences. It is the basis of the current socialist utopia, hidden for too long.