Intégration et déviance au sein du système international
Integration And Divergence Within The International System
Based on an original statistical method, which offers a ranking of countries by number of multilateral treaties they have ratified or not from 1945 to the present, the author highlights the different strategies that are defined by protest-the challenging of norms, withdrawal and the 'lone ranger' phenomenon. She likewise points out the compound nature of divergence, which is not just the only alternative cooperation-rivalry.
Her unexpected conclusions show that even the most powerful states can play the card of deviance - starting with the United States that stands out due to their high number of non-ratification - while the main challengers states (Iran, Cuba, Venezuela) do not hesitate to use the UN forum, to denounce the hegemonic order and the breaches of international obligations.
Soraya Sidani holds a PhD in Political Science from Sciences Po Paris. She is director of program at the Institute for Near-East and Gulf Military Studies à Dubaï and teaches at the Sorbonne University-Abu Dhabi and at Saint-Joseph University in Beirut.