Amérique latine, les élections contre la démocratie?
Latin America : Elections Against Democracy ?
Twelve Latin American countries held presidential elections between November 2005 and December 2006. This exceptional wave of elections was reduced by radical changes (Bolivia, Equador) but also by a certain continuity (Chile, Columbia, Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil). New figures appeared, such as the indigenous Evo Morales in Bolivia or Michelle Bachelet in Chile, while former presidents were re-elected two decades after their first terms (Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Peru). The results, therefore, are diverse.
Could the disastrous social heritage of a decade of Neolibralism lead to electoral behaviors harmful to the stability and quality of democracy ? Have the Latin Americans deserted the voting booth, allowing themselves to be seduced by neopopulist rhetoric, or bring to power presidents without a majority to govern ? It’s been none of these, but in several countries (Bolivia, Equador, Venezuela, Nicaragua) the elections have opened up profound political polarization.
This work evaluates the political evolutions of the continent, its turn to the left, the influence of Hugo Chávez in the region, and its relation with the United States. Going a step further, it calls into question a certain number of hypotheses raised in recent years on the obstacles to consolidation and democracy in Latin America.
Olivier Dabène, in order to analyze the 2006 electoral cycle in Latin America, has reunited the finest specialists from France, Spain, Mexico, Columbia, Bolivia, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil. Their contributions offer a series of rigorous perspectives, based on the best sources.